Formed police units (FPUs)
The majority of Police Officers serving in United Nations peacekeeping operations are deployed as part of a Formed Police Unit (FPU). An FPU consists of approximately 140 Police Officers, trained and equipped to act as a cohesive unit capable of accomplishing policing tasks that individual Police Officers could not address. Well-trained FPUs can operate even in “high-risk” environments.
FPUs have three core duties: public order management, protection of United Nations personnel and facilities and support to such police operations that require a concerted response but do not respond to military threats.
FPUs were deployed for the first time in the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and in the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) in 1999. In both missions the United Nations had full responsibility for enforcing the law and dealing with threats to public order. Since then, the deployment of FPUs has increased from nine units in 2000 to 71authorized FPUs in 2016, with over 10,000 Police Officers.
FPUs are deployed in the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS), the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), the African Union/ United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID), the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI), the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), the United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).
The United Nations core documents for formed police units are the policy (2016) and guidelines (2006).
To be eligible to be deployed to United Nations missions FPUs have to undergo pre-deployment training which meets the requirements envisaged in the UN Temporary Training Standards for FPUs (December 2010), and successfully pass the assessment of operational capability conducted by Formed Police Assessment Team (FPAT) in line with the Standard Operating Procedure for Assessment of Operational Capability for formed police units for service in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (2012).